Philip Cafaro

Gluttony, Arrogance, Greed and Apathy:

An Exploration of Environmental Vice


1.       How human beings fail can teach us much about ourselves

2.       Perhaps nowhere are our failures more apparent than our treatment of nature

3.       Most Americans self-identify as “environmentalists” and support strong policies to protect the env.

          a.       Yet same people behave in env. irresponsible ways

                    i.        E.g., plant thirsty bluegrass laws and pour poisons on them to keep them dandelions free

                    ii.       Buy gas-guzzling SUVs and drive them 4 blocks for a loaf of bread

4.       Why when in comes to env. are our actions so out of sync with professed values?

5.       Two answers

          a.       One: Political, economic, and technological systems give us unsustainable choices or push us in those directions

                    i.        Politicians fund highways, not bike paths or mass transit

                    ii.       Corporate advertising stimulates env costly desires, rather than encouraging contentment with what we have

          b.       Two: We as consumers and citizens often chose environmentally worse choices

                    i.        No one forces us to buy big SUVs, build three car garages, or let our bicycles rust

6.       Cafaro’s main claim: Env. problems importantly stem from fact we are bad people (my language, not Cafaro’s)

          a.       Cafaro’s language: “We make env. irresponsible choices because we are not the people we should be”

          b.       Illustrates the worry that virtue language is judgmental and will lead to resentment

          c.       Poor env. behavior stems in part from particular character defects or vices

          d.       Most important env. vices: gluttony, arrogance, greed, and apathy.


7.       That we need to worry about env. vice at the individual level does not mean we should ignore larger systemic causes of env. degradation

          a.       Achieving sustainable societies requires that we make fundamental political change

          b.       Citizens need to work for strong anti-pollution laws, more national parks and wildernesses, more funding for mass transit, more taxes on personal cars, policies to limit human population growth, policies to stop large corporations from setting env. policy

8.       But must also choose wisely in everyday env decisions

          a.       Failure of neighbors or leaders does not absolve us from our personal env responsibilities

          b.       World is an unjust place, but we should live justly within it

          c.       Ignores tragedy of commons and prisoner’s dilemmas: Cases where individual action without guarantee that others will act means we sacrifice our self-interest for no good at all

9.       Worry that EVE focuses too much on individualistic solutions to env. problems (a worry that Cafaro is clearly aware of give above)


10.     Is EVE too judgmental? (See footnote 1)

          a.       Vice is not talked about much (by contemporary philosophers or others)

          b.       Because talking about vice involves being judgmental

          c.       If say actions are wrong, assume people free to act otherwise

          d.       Vice signifies a deeper evil in people, harder to reform

          e.       If we say particular social arrangements are unfair/unjust locate primary evil “in the system”

          f.       Vice terms locate evil squarely within people

          g.       Fine to criticize particular acts or social arrangements

          h.       Criticizing people generally is not seen to be okay

          i.        Find a persistent evil in people and you border on a pessimism at odds with the optimism most find desirable

11.     Since Cafaro is willing to focus on env. vice as important part of env. problems, he must not think EVE is too judgmental


12.     In common language vices include drinking, gambling, smoking, nose-picking

13.     Vice (Philosophically): A negative character trait (that harms)

          a.       Such as gluttony or greed (avarice) or sloth (being lazy)

14.     Vice objective: Vice judgments can be more or less plausible, sometimes right or wrong, correctable and improvable

15.     Vice harms: Either vicious person, those around him, or both

          a.       This might be a controversial claim.....

16.     Vice depends on flourishing: Judgments of vice are derivative on particular conceptions of human and nonhuman flourishing and the assumption that these are important

          a.       Views on what “goods” make up a good human life

          b.       So vice judgments change as conceptions of (human) flourishing change

          c.       E.g., if don’t believe that people who spend their lives sitting on couches, drinking beer and watching T.V. are living less than fully (flourishing) human lives, then won’t think that sloth and drunkenness are vices

          d.       E.g., if don’t believe that human flourishing involves admiring contact with the natural world, then you won’t see biophobia as a vice.

17.     Four commonalties to conceptions of vice

18.     One: Vices hinder legitimate self-development (and virtues lead to flourishing)

          a.       Aristotle: virtues cause people to function well, vices undermine proper human functioning and well-being

          b.       Aquinas: vice lead to weakness, failure and disintegration of self

19.     Two: Vice both bad for individuals and harmful to their communities

          a.       Extreme view Cafaro rejects: Can never benefit ourselves by wronging others

                    i.        Does this reject the key insight of EVE below (“we can’t harm nature without harming ourselves”)?

          b.       Cafaro: Wronging others in attempt to benefit ourselves tends to lead us toward unhappiness

                    i.        Sharp dealings in business leads people to distrust us and so we don’t prosper

                    ii.       Avarice helps us amass great wealth at expense of fellow citizens, who then hate us or plot our demise

          c.       Our happiness is bound up with the happiness of others, so a broadened self-interest should get people to act morally

                    i.        Most modern moral philosophy abandoned this claim and instead focuses on a direct appeal to altruism (helping others for its own sake, and not because it makes one happy or flourishing)

          d.       Until recently people have paid little attention to human harms to the environment or for potential for those harms to rebound and harm us in turn

20.     Three: Vice contradicts and eventually undermines reason

          a.       Destroys our ability to understand proper place in the world and act morally

          b.       Vices are habits of thought and action that if left unchecked cloud reason, which is the voice of both conscience and prudence

          c.       E.g., Aristotle’s notion of intemperance: continued pursuit of illicit pleasure so clouded our judgment that we no longer recognize it as wrong

                    i.        It can’t be wrong, were having so much fun

                    ii.       At first you feel something is wrong, but after you do it for a while, you no longer have this feeling.....

21.     Four: Vice cuts us off from reality and what is most important in life

          a.       E.g., we spend time amassing wealth instead of getting to know our children


22.     Two types of arguments to protect nature

          a.       Altruistic: Wrong to harm nature, it has intrinsic value, appeal to altruism (should be concerned with others) (non-anthropocentric)

          b.       Enlightened self-interest: Wrong to harm humans and since human flourishing depends on nature’s flourishing, we should not harm nature

                    i.        Nature has derivative, instrumental value

                    ii.       We will be better or happier people if we appreciate and protect nature

                    iii.      (Anthropocentric)

          c.       Both are good reasons to protect nature


23.     Key idea behind EVE: We can’t harm nature w/o harming ourselves


24.     Human flourishing depends on nature’s flourishing

          a.       Need healthy environment (lead exposure damages children’s brains, lower intelligence, mental retardation)

          b.       Need varied and stimulating environment, including accessible wild areas that preserve native flora and fauna

                    i.        (Children who grow up w/o chances to experience wild nature miss opportunities to appreciate beauty, understand human history /prehistory and reflect on their place in the world– and doing so is part of human flourishing)

25.     Human flourishing does not depend on high levels of material consumption

          a.       Acquisition of material possessions leads us to ignore higher pursuits

          b.       Overconsumption undermines nature’s health and integrity and our lives suffer

26.     Environmental vices cause harm

          a.       Harm the vicious person directly

                    i.        Vices are often selfish, but also lead to self-harm

          b.       Harm those around him and future generations (he should care about them and his own happiness not easily separated from theirs)

          c.       Harms nonhuman nature

                    i.        This is bad in itself (for these entities are can flourish and are wonderful when they do)

                    ii.       And bad because the harm rebounds and harms human communities and (sometimes) the individuals inflicting the harm


27.     Assumes a conception of human flourishing that environmentalists accept (and others may not) and that is perhaps controversial and in any case needs justification

          a.       Do humans need significant amounts of wild flourishing nature to lead fulfilling lives?

          b.       Clearly need nature in some sense for human flourishing, but it’s not clear it is a wild, “natural” nature we need, rather than an artifactualized, artificial life support type of nature

          c.       Mightn’t plastic trees or genetically engineered plants or more generally artificial environments do as well?

          d.       If we need diverse environments, why isn’t NY City environment sufficiently diverse?

          e.       If we need beauty, why isn’t artistic beauty enough?

          f.        If we need a feeling of belonging, why isn’t belonging to the human community enough? Why do we need belonging to earth community too?

28.     Doesn’t human life and flourishing require harming nature, at least to some extent? (Cutting trees, clearing land for agriculture

          a.       Idea that we needed to tame much of nature to achieve human civilization, but now we need to back off


29.     Assume it is true that we can’t harm nature w/o harming ourselves, as EVE suggests

30.     So is EVE is anthropocentric?

          a.       “An environmental virtue ethics may give us good self-interested reasons to rein in our env. vices; it does not seek to reduce all vice to self-interest.” (139) (Is this true?)

          b.       “Nothing wrong with curbing our vices because we believe in our self-interest to do so”

31.     A Holmes Rolston’s objection to EVE: Treat nature right for the wrong reasons (self-interest) (Jamieson makes a similar criticism of EVE)

          a.       Cafaro: “I’m more worried that you will not treat nature right at all, and I believe that any reason that convinces you to treat nature more gently is a good reason”

32.     Another Holmes Rolston objection to EVE: Unless natural objects have intrinsic value, harming them would not be a vice (ignoring the possible human harm this might also cause)

          a.       If natural objects were worthless, then destroying them would not be vicious

          b.       Hursthouse thinks EVE can do w/o intrinsic value of nature.....


33.     Gluttony: Excess in eating and drinking, an excessive desire for food and drink, more generally, overindulgence of many kinds

34.     Two kinds: (p. 140 examples)

          a.       Classic glutton at a table stuffing food in with both hands, sauces dribbling down chin, going for quantity, not quality

          b.       Fine gluttony: (“Developing a taste for finer things”)

                    i.        Two women at a fancy restaurant simpering (= “To utter or express with a silly, self-conscious, often coy smile”) over the tomato bisque

                    ii.       Getting too delicate food or drink; fastidiousness with great attention to the preparation and dressing of food

                    iii.      Fish from New Zealand in NY City; strawberries from Chile in NY city in January

35.     Gluttony

          a.       Wastes our time and cause us to pay less attention to what is truly important


36.     Not just a displeasing aesthetically, but causes harm and thus morally wrong

37.     Harms of gluttony

          a.       Harms the glutton:

                    i.        Overeating leads to obesity and huge related health dangers (4 of ten leading causes of death are correlated with being overweight)

                    ii.       Obesity decreases happiness/well-being, fell more lethargic, less engagement in enjoyable physical activities (and positive feedback loop)

          b.       Harms the fine glutton: Harder to argue that gluttony harms the fine glutton

                    i.        They may find lots of pleasure in savoring the sauces and comparing the wines and we do want pleasure out of life

                    ii.       But will a taste for finer things lead to happiness in the long run?

                              (1)     If can no longer enjoy simple meals or forget Seneca’s advice that “hunger is the best spice”

                              (2)     Or pay more attention to how our cooking turned out than to the friends around our table

                    iii.      Given limited time, attention to trivia can lead to neglect the more important things

          c.       Environmental Costs of Gluttony

                    i.        1200 species on U.S. ESA and habitat loss is the main cause

                    ii.       Agriculture, livestock grazing huge major source of habitat loss

                    iii.      Agriculture also leads to water depletion and pollution both factors that threaten other species.

                    iv.      25% over-consumption of food

                              (1)     Americans take in 25% more food than they need (2800 calories a day versus 2200)

                              (2)     Increase land needed to grow crops and raise animals by 25%, increases water use for agriculture by 25% and pollution associated with agriculture 25%

          d.       Gluttony harms ecosystem health, which in tern harms human health again (pollution from livestock confinement makes people sick)

          e.       Human costs of this overuse of agriculture

                    i.        Unhealthy ecosystems lead to human health problems

                    ii.       People sickened from air/water pollution

          f.       Mental health suffers:

                    i.        Intellectual and spiritual loss as diverse native ecosystems converted to boring monoculture

                    ii.       Boring to live and work in

                    iii.      Note!: “Monotonous sea of corn and soybeans has probably taken a toll on minds of Illinois farmers”

          g.       Reject idea that overeating harms starving people in 3rd world, since eating less would not help them, for the causes are political and economic (inept governments, maldistribution of wealth and poverty)

          h.       Gluttony’s other-directed harms falls primarily on nonhumans, and lessening our agricultural footprint would help other species greatly

38.     Gluttony need not harm the glutton himself (much) for we can refine our vices to direct almost all of their harm to others

          a.       Can “eat and drink our way though our children’s inheritance and then hit the gym the next day and stay quite healthy”

          b.       Can cook spectacular meals for myself and friends, maximize our pleasure, and greatly increase env. harm as fish flown in from New Zealand and strawberries from Chile

                    i.        Fine gluttony increases our agricultural footprint, thus harming nature

                    ii.       But we can get out and enjoy nature, flying to New Zealand or Chile to hike/ski

39.     We need to limit our agricultural footprint and accommodate ourselves more to locally available foods

          a.       For “all important unnecessary harm is wrong”


40.     Childishness of gluttony:

          a.       Crude and undeveloped in people who seek all happiness in simplest ways

          b.       “Gross feeder is a man in the larva state” “and there are whole nations in that condition, nations without imagination, whose vase abdomens betray them” (Thoreau)

          c.       Self development and lasting satisfaction come though more adult pleasures and activities–pleasures of love and friendship, aesthetic appreciation, and pursuit of knowledge, will not pale or lead to unjust behavior.

41.     Opposite of gluttony

          a.       Virtues of temperance (moderate use)

          b.       Gratitude is also a related virtue

                    i.        Thanksgiving should not simply be “another excuse for Americans to pig out”, but a real day of giving thanks and felling gratitude (and accepting our env. responsibilities)


42.     Attitudes about pride, humility and arrogance are complex

          a.       Pride can be a vice

                    i.        Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount exhorts us to live lives of meekness and humility

                    ii.       We often go wrong in our social dealings because of a desire to assert our superiority over others

                    iii.      We condemn those who lord it over others

                    iv.      Dislike braggarts and prefer heroes who credit others for their successes or downplay them

          b.       Pride is a necessary part of a good life

                    i.        We scoff at obsequious people

                    ii.       Encourage our children to take pride in their work and achievements

43.     Cafaro: Proper pride is a virtue (and a mean between two extremes)

          a.       One vice: Obsequiousness (bootlicking, attentive in a servile manner, fawning, subservient, excessive meekness)

          b.       Other vice: Arrogance (overvaluation of ourselves and undervaluation of others)

44.     Environmentalists have focused on human arrogance towards nature

          a.       We think we are number one in the universe

          b.       Arrogance of anthropocentrism:

                    i.        The vain and selfish view that humans alone are worthy of respect and that everything else in the world, including several million other species has value only if useful to humans.

          c.       Setting ourselves up as tyrants over the rest of nature

45.     Arrogant indifference to nature and arrogant indifference to people often go together

          a.       Story of Chevron/Shell in Nigeria using military dictatorship to ruthlessly stop locals from protesting harm oil extraction was causing them and Chevron contractor Bill Spencer’s indifference and arrogance toward local Nigerians

46.     Off road vehicle use is arrogant:

          a.       Arrogant environmental destruction by individuals

          b.       ORVs harms public lands: tens of thousands of miles of illegal roads , degrade wildlife habitat, erosion

                    i.        For some, harming nature is part of the fun

          c.       Snowmobiles in Yellowstone stampeding wildlife and causing air pollution (entrance guards wear gas-masks)

          d.       Jet-skis dump 1/4 of oil/gas into lakes/rivers

          e.       Not only trash nature, also ruin experience of other recreationists (vast majority don’t use these machines)

          f.       ORV use encourages anthropocentrism

                    i.        Should encourage our children to enjoy habits that are environmentally responsible: bird watching, trout fishing, wildlife photography, back-country camping

47.     Need practices and laws that to prevent arrogant behavior and protect nature

48.     Need these if we are to

49.     Preserve flourishing natural world that EVE insists is a prerequisite for human flourishing.

          a.       “The more we preserve and appreciate nature’s beauty, the more we will flourish ourselves”

          b.       This ignores that even if we accept that nature flourishing is a prerequisite for human flourishing, other things are required as well (culture) and this may require a sacrifice in nature flourishing


50.     Greed defined: “An excessive desire to acquire/possess more than what one needs or deserves, especially with respect to material wealth”

          a.       “An excessive longing that actual possession cannot satisfy”

51.     Greed is vicious because

          a.       Too great an emphasis on money or possessions leads to harm

          b.       There are limits to what we need, deserve or can really use.

52.     Greedy are incapable of generosity and immune to the demands of justice

          a.       Greedy people who are super rich, harm people to get more (buy up companies and sell off assets and put people out of work), no intention of sharing wealth with others, can’t see the sheer pointlessness of amassing any more wealth

53.     Greed leads to of environmental harm to nature

54.     Profits placed ahead of all else and leads to break environmental laws or do minimal necessary to comply (profitable hog farmer who doubles size of operation to make even more money results in env. harms)

55.     Greed helps drive over-consumption which harms nature

          a.       Americans use vastly more resources than our grandparents largely because we purchase unnecessary things (kids toys quickly thrown out, fancy big powerful poor gas mileage cars–hummers, 3-5 TVs)

          b.       But we compete with other living things which also need resources to survive

          c.       We are willing to destroy others lives and monopolize resources they need in order to satisfy trivial desires

          d.       At a minimum, justice requires we avoid consumption that does nothing to further our happiness (but greed leads us on to ever more consumption)

56.     Greed harms greedy people themselves

          a.       No strong connection between increased wealth and happiness

                    i.        Beyond poorest 10-15%, no correlation between wealth and happiness (no more likely to be happy at $400,000 and $40,000)

          b.       Happiness strongest correlation with security of income and getting along with fellow workers and spouse.

          c.       People with more materialistic outlooks on life tend to have poorer interpersonal relations, the most effective means to happiness

          d.       Materialistic outlooks on life tend to undermine happiness

                    i.        Gap between what you want and what you have tends to be greater with material possessions (than other things)

                    ii.       Focus on material goods requires $ and working harried lives to get it

          e.       Materialism involves turning away from real goods to apparent goods

                    i.        Birdwatcher with expensive Zeiss binoculars who rarely gets up to hear the dawn chorus

57.     In America we are raised to be greedy

          a.       So much advertising, encouraging us to think happiness comes about via consumption

                    i.        W/o the latest consumer goodie, you are a loser

          b.       Institutions that once spoke out against materialism (mainly churches) have fallen largely silent about its dangers

58.     How to lessen greed and promote opposite virtues: thrift, modesty, generosity and contentment

          a.       Engage in activities rather than purchasing things

          b.       Can share things (neighbors share lawnmowers)

          c.       Stop watching TV

          d.       Find alternatives to “recreational shopping”

          e.       Ban billboards and commercial advertising in public schools

          f.       Require recycling

          g.       Pass sumptuary laws (laws that regulate habits of consumption): limit size of homes

                    i.        Help send message that greed is bad


59.     Apathy defined: Lack of interest/concern regarding matters of general importance or appeal

60.     Apathy and laziness are closely connected

61.     Apathy a key env vice

          a.       Our default procedures harm the env and doing better takes work, at least initially

                    i.        E.g., biking to work rather than driving, setting up recycling bins rather than just tossing garbage

62.     Apathy involves lazy thinking as well as halfhearted action or inaction or

          a.       Tied to passivity

          b.       His students can’t imagine any way forward beyond American car culture and this combined with knowledge of env. Harms it causes leaves them feeling defeated and hopeless

63.     People feeling defeated or hopeless in face of env problems a sign of their apathy or a cause?

64.     Problem of intense env activity and then “burnout”

65.     Env harms of apathy

          a.       People don’t stand up to protect the places and things they care about and they get destroyed.

66.     Apathy harms the apathetic person

          a.       Apathy feels bad, makes life seem meaningless, no interest in the world, feeling of powerlessness

          b.       If care about nature but too apathetic to stand up for it, forfeit one’s moral integrity

          c.       Fighting for what you care about feels good and helps one lead a fulfilling life

67.     Opposites of apathy: vulnerability and ambition

68.     Might a person be happier not caring about the environment, but simply enjoying it?

          a.       Being a free rider makes sense from individual point of view

          b.       People who “float the rivers, ski the mountains, build second homes in prime elk habitat, enjoy it while the can” might be happier than those sitting in 4 hour long city council meetings waiting nervously for a chance to speak for two minutes in favor of new zoning ordinance

                    i.        Can’t sit in the meeting room and ski fresh powder at the same time!

69.     Cafaro: those who enjoy nature’s benefits have a duty to try to preserve it: for our communities, for future generations, for nature’s sake and for our own sake.

          a.       Cafaro seems to be giving up EVE and using deontological, obligation language (except for the last clause)


70.     Virtues must be sustainable, including environmentally sustainable

          a.       Virtues as virtues contribute to human flourishing and without sustainable environment there can be no such flourishing

71.     Any character trait, habit, institution that is unsustainable is vicious


72.     Apathy and indifference socially and env unsustainable, cause great harm and thus are vices.


73.     How to fight apathy?

          a.       Find roles that are enjoyable for you

                    i.        Excitement of political campaigns?

                    ii.       Minor celebrity of writing newspaper editorials

                    iii.      Analyze complex policy proposals

                    iv.      Teaching children names of flowers/birds


74.     We harm nature because we are ignorant, selfish, gluttonous, arrogant, greedy, and apathetic

75.     We don’t understand obligations to others or to our own self-interest

76.     Falsely assume we can separate

          a.       harms to nature from harms to humanity

          b.       Hams to others and harms to ourselves

77.     Fail to see that env vices do not just harm nature, but ourselves and people around us

78.     Env vice is bad for us and bad for the earth