Traditional environmentalism


Latour’s Compositionalism, Post-environmentalism

Humans should protect a separate nature

Humans should dominate nature and separate themselves from nature via technology

Humans, technology, nature are entangled, inseparable; humans & earth coextensive

Stop intervening in nature, leave it pristine as possible

Intervention for the sake of emancipation from nature which used to dominate us

Emancipation, separation from nature not possible nor desirable

Live lightly on earth

Heavily manage nature

Take God-like care of the human/nature integrations we’ve created

We should try to reverse our fall from nature

We should try to liberate ourselves from nature

We should become ever more attached to nature

Unintended, unwanted consequences show we need to back off our attempt to dominate/control nature

Shocked by unintended, unwanted consequences of intervention in nature; did not take responsibility for them

Unintended consequences are quite normal, we just need to take care of them

Technology destroys nature

Technology frees us from nature

Technology leads to ever increasing intimacy with nature

Env as “that which lies beyond and should be left alone”


Env as what should be ever more managed, cared for, and internalized into fabric of society

Likes pristine parks with humans separated from them (Yellowstone)


Likes parks with humans integrated into them (villages, cows, post-offices, rural ecosystems)

Nature needs us to leave it alone


Nature needs our undivided attention, scientists, institutions, funding


Mastery and possession of nature is total domination

Mastery and possession of nature involves attachment and dependence (master depends on his slaves...)

Sinful to want to have dominion over nature


Sin is not desire for dominion over nature, but believe this involves emancipation rather than attachment