Typology of Environmental Values
from Rolston, Conserving Natural Values, Ch 5, Sec 6 and Ch 6, Sec 2 & 6

Intrinsic value as Non-instrumental value
Instrumental value
Being good as an end (end value), valuable for own sake
Being good as a means/instrument (use value)
Wolf's life
Wolf regulating elk population
Anthropocentric value (3 senses)
Non-anthropocentric value

(One) Value seen from a human perspective
For humans, valuing is necessarily (and trivially) anthropocentric in this sense. Everything we humans talk about uses human concepts and the human perspective. But this is quite compatible with humans taking the perspective that nonhumans matter for their own sake

Value as not seen from the human perspective; valuing from some perspective other than the human one. This is not possible for humans
(Two) Putting humans at the center of concern of moral concern and nature at the periphery/margin
Refusing to put humans at center of moral concern and refusing to marginalize nonhuman nature
(Three) Use (instrumental) value to humans: Taxol (a cancer cure) from Yew tree
Value other than use value to humans: e.g., Acorn to a squirrel (non-anthropocentric and instrumental) & squirrel's life (nonanthropocentric and intrinsic)
Anthropogenic value
Nonanthropogenic value
Human caused and generated value
Value not caused or generated by humans
Humans intrinsic valuing of wolf (anthropogenic, not anthropocentric--2 or 3)
Wolf seeking elk, or liking taste of elk (first instrumental second intrinsic valuing?
Subjective value
Objective value
Value that depends on a conscious valuating subject; Many believe that all value requires a valuer, no value w/o a valuer--that only subjective value exists
Value that does not depending on a conscious valuing subject, value without a conscious valuing valuer
Value as like secondary quality--green/sweet--it is only there if it is perceived
Value as like a primary quality (shape/motion); like photosynthesis (there whether we recognize it or not)
The green of the tree depends on its being perceived
The tree engages in photosynthesis whether or not we perceive it
Objective instrumental value
Objective intrinsic value
Objective instrumental nutritional value of potato or soil nutrients to the tree Having a good of one's own; tree can be benefited
Seems pretty clear that objective instrumental value exists in nature without humans or other valuing subjects

Does it follow that if X is instrumentally good for Y--without further contributory reference--that Y has intrinsic valuable?

Does instrumental value entails (at the end) intrinsic value?

Does tree value in objective sense?

Relational value
Non-relational value
The value of something depends on its relation to other things

Value of something that does not depend on relations to other things

If it was the only thing in the world it would have this value

Examples: Rarity and wilderness--which is valued (intrinsically) in relation to absence of humans; thus non-instrumental (intrinsic) value can be relational

Example: the feeling of pleasure
Instrumental value is relational; as is systemic value (see below) Intrinsic value of pleasure as felt is not relational (?)

Tiger on the moon (or in the zoo) (Loses its intrinsic value; for it is what it is in an ecosystem; Tiger is and is valuable where it is, as part of a system, This is relational value.

Tiger as a sentient being has intrinsic value apart from its relations

Actual Value

Potential/possible Value

The value actually exist a time T
No actual value at time T, but a possible/potential value at time T which can only be realized given some other conditions
Was there actual value on earth before sentient beings arrived or only potential value (or no value at all?) Refrigerator light example: The light in the refrigerator was always there, but not lit up until we opened the door.